= History of the GUI = |!2 Milestones of the PC Graphical User Interface | | 1968 | Douglas Engelbart demonstrates the NLS | | 1973 | Xerox introduces the Alto | | 1982 | VisiCorp demonstrates Visi On | | 1984 | Apple introduces the Macintosh | | 1984 | DRI demonstrates the GEM desktop | | 1985 | Atari releases the Atari 520ST | | 1985 | Commodore introduces the Amiga 1000 | | 1985 | Microsoft ships Windows | == Douglas Engelbart demonstrates the NLS == [[figure-float-right:/artwork/1968-Demo.jpg Frame from the 1968 demo, showing the chord pad, the keyboard and the mouse.]] '''December 9th, 1968:''' Douglas Engelbart demonstrates the NLS, the first computer interface to incorporate hyperlinks, a mouse and a raster-scan video display for interacting with the computer[1] * Watch the complete [http://www.1968demo.org 1968 Demo] * Watch [http://www.invisiblerevolution.net/ The Invisible Resolution], a documentary about the life of Douglas Engelbart == Xerox introduces the Alto == '''March 1st, 1973:''' The [[Xerox Alto]] computer, developed at the Xerox PARC (Palo Alto Research Center), refined the concept of a graphical user interface[2]. * Experience the [[Xerox Alto]] inside your browser! Although Xerox did not immediately commercialise the ideas embodied in the Alto, they did demonstrate it to Apple Computers, who later incorporated many of these ideas into the Apple Lisa and the Macintosh. A commercial successor to the Xerox Alto, the [[Xerox Star]] was released in 1981. The Xerox Star continued to develop the desktop metaphor, but did not gain widespread use outside of a few businesses. == VisiCorp demonstrates Visi On == [[figure-float-right:/artwork/visi-on.jpg A screenshot from the Visi On Desktop Mananger]] '''Fall, 1982:''' VisiCorp demonstrates the [[Visi-On]] GUI for the IBM PC at COMDEX. Although technically impressive and far ahead of it's time, it required a top-of-the-line IBM PC and a hard disk, a very expensive luxury at the time. * Run Visi On [[inside your web browser|Visi-On.html]]! == Apple introduces the Macintosh == [[Image-float-left:/artwork/apple-logo.png]] '''January 24, 1984:''' Steve Jobs introduces the Macintosh 128k. While the mouse-based interface was inspired by the Xerox Alto, it was released to the home market at a price point that was far more affordable to individuals[5]. * Watch Steve Jobs [https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2B-XwPjn9YY introduce the Macintosh] * Experience the Macintosh through [[in-browser emulation|Apple-Macintosh.html]]! == Digital Research demonstrates the GEM == '''November 1984:''' Digital Research, Inc. demonstrates GEM desktop for the IBM PC at COMDEX. This graphical shell for DOS was such a close copy of the Macintosh that Apple successfully sued DRI for copyright infringement. * Try [[GEM/1|GEM-Desktop.html]] for the IBM PC. == Atari releases the Atari 520ST == [[figure-float-right:/artwork/gem.png The GEM GUI used on the Atari closely mimics the Macintosh]] '''January 1985:''' Atari releases the Atari 520ST, with a graphical interface is a port of Digital Research's [[GEM Desktop]]. * Try out the Atari version of the GEM GUI in your [[web browser|Atari-1040ST.html]]! == Commodore introduces the Amiga 1000 and AmigaOS == [[figure-float-left:/artwork/amiga-os.png A screenshot of the boing demo and the Workbench running simultaneously]] '''July 23, 1985:''' Commodore releases the Amiga 1000, featuring a fully multitasking, multimedia-capable operating system. * Take [[AmigaOS]] for a test drive! == Microsoft ships Windows == [[figure-float-right:/artwork/windows-1.0-about.jpg About box from Windows 1.0]] '''November 20, 1985:''' Microsoft ships the first version of Windows as an add on to Microsoft DOS[6]. * Learn more about [[Windows 1.0]] at ToastyTech.com === References === # http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NLS_(computer_system) # http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xerox_Alto # http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xerox_Star # http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Visi_On # http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Macintosh # http://windows.microsoft.com/en-us/windows/history Xerox Alto Xerox Star Visi-On AmigaOS Windows 1.0 GEM Desktop